The Prophet in his life time with the instructions from Allah the almighty
presented this Land to Hadhrat Fatimah (AS), as is found in the Commentary
of the respected Sunni Scholar, Jalaluddin al-Suyuti. Here is the
historical background for the Land of Fadak, and after that is the text for
the Tafseer for the Verse 26 Chapter XVII.
Imam Ali (AS) was sent to Fadak, a Jewish town not far from Khaibar to
take it. But, before the use of any force, the inhabitants tendered their
submission, ceding half of their property to the prophet. When the Angel
Gabriel revealed to the Prophet the Divine Command as in the Verse 26 of
Chapter XVII (17)
"And give unto one who is of Kin (to thee) that which is due" [17:26]
and the Prophet asked as to who was meant as "being of Kin". the Angel
named Janabe Fatimah (AS) and told the Prophet to give Fadak to her (AS) as
the Income from Fadak belonged wholly to him on account of its being ceded
to him without the use of force. the Prophet (PBUH) accordingly bestowed
upon Janabe Fatimah (AS) his estate of Fadak for the substinence of herself
and her children.
With reference to the above Quranic Verse, many Sunni commentators have
when the Verse was revealed, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) asked the Angel
Gabriel: "Who are the Kinsmen and what is their due?" The Angel
Gibrael replied "Give Fadak to Fatimah for it is her due, and whatever
is due to Allah and the Prophet (PBUH) out of Fadak, that also belongs
to her, so entrust to her also."
[ The above is narrated through al Bazzar, Abu Yala, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn
Marduwayh and others from Abu Said al Khudri and through Ibn Marduwayh
from Abdullah ibn al Abbas for the above verse ]
- Tafsir Durr al-Mansur, v4, p177
- Kanz al-Ummal, v2, p158
- Sawaiq al Muhriqah Chapter 15 p 21-22
- Rozatul Safaa vol 2 p 135
- Sharah e Muwaqif p 735
- Tareekh Ahmadi p45
- Ruh al ma'ani, vol 15 p 62
This proves us to belief that the Land of Fadak was the personal belonging of Hadhrat Fatimah (AS)!
Historians also write that
"Certainly, Abu Bakr snatched Fadak from Fatimah (as)"
- Sharah, vol 16 p 219
- Wafa al Wafa (as Samhudi), vol 3 p1000
- Sawaiq al Muhriqah, p 32
Fatimah (as) raised a voice when Fadak was stolen from her, protesting to
Abu Bakr, she said:
You have taken over possesion of Fadak although the Prophet
had gifted it to me during his life time.
On this Abu Bakr asked her to produce witnesses of the gift. Consequently,
Imam Ali (as) and Umm Ayman gave evidence on her favor. (Umm Ayman was the
freed bond maid and the dry nurse for the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF), She was
the mother of Usamah ibn Zayd ibn al Harith. The Holy Prophet usted to say
Umm Ayman is my mother after my mother. The Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF)
also bore witness that she is among the people of paradise.
- al Mustadrak, vol 4 p 63
- History of Tabari, vol 3 p 3460
- al Istiab, vol 4 p 1793
- Usud al Ghabah, vol 5 p 567
- Tabaqat, vol 8 p 192
- al Isabah, vol 4 p 432
But this evidence was held in-admissible by Abu Bakr and Fatimah's (as)
claim was rejected as being based on false statement. About this Baladhuri
Fatimah (as) said to Abu Bakr: The Messenger of Allah had
apportioned Fadak to me. Therefore give it to me. Then he
asked for another witness than Umm Ayman, saying: O
daughter of the Prophet, you know that evidence is not
admissible except by two men or one man and two women.
Besides, them, Imam Hasan (as) and Imam Hussain (as) gave evidence in
support of Fatimah (as), but their evidence was also rejected; on the
ground that the evidence of the offspring and minors was not acceptable
in favour of their parents. Then Rabah the slave of the Holy Prophet
(PBUH&HF) was also produced as a witness in support of the claim of
Fatimah but he was rejected too.
- Futuhul Buldan, vol 1 p 35
- at Tarikh, Yaqubi, vol 3 p 195
- Muruj ad Dhahab, al Masudi, vol 3 p 237
- al Awail, Abu Hilal al Askari, p 209
- Wafa al Wafa, vol 3 p 99-1001
- Mujam al Buldan, Yaqut al Hamawai, vol 4 p 239
- Sharah, Ibn al Hadid, vol 16, p 216, 219-220, 274
- al Muhalla, Ibn HAzm, vol 6 p 507
- as Sirah al halabiyah, vol 3 p 261
- at Tafsir, al Fakr ad Din al Razi, vol 29 p 284
Talking about the very hadith that Abu Bakr had sited to support his
decision that has been mentioned in many books, that goes as follows
It is narrated on the authority of Urwa Ibn Zubair who narrated from
Aisha that she informed him that Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger
of Allah (PBUH) sent some one to Abu Bakr to demand from him her share
of the legacy left by left by the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) from what
Allah had bestowed upon him at Medina and Fadak and what was left from
1/5 th of the income from Khaibar. Abu Bakr said that: the Messenger
of Allah (PBUH) said:
We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is to be
given in charity.
The household of the Messenger of Allah will live on the income of
these Properties, but, by Allah I will not change the charity of the
Messenger of Allah from the condition in which it was in his own time.
I will do the same with it as the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) himself
used to do.
So Abu Bakr refused to hand over any thing from it to Fatimah who got
angry with Abu Bakr for this reason. She forsook him and did not talk
to him untill the end of her life. She lived for six months after the
death of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH). When she died her husband Ali
Ibn Abu Talib buried her at night. he did not inform Abu Baker about
her death and offered the funeral prayer over her himself ......
- Sahih Muslim, English version, v3, Chapter DCCXIX, p956, Tradition #4352
Now let us analyze the statement that Abu Bakr stated:
We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is to
be given in charity.
Abdullah Ibn Abdul Muttalib left to Umme Aiman a legacy of five (5)
dust coloured camels and a small flock of sheep, which was inherited
by the Prophet of Allah.
- Tabaqat Ibn Sad - Part I p39
- Siratun Nabi by Moulana Shibli Noumani, v1, p122
- Fath al Bari vol 3 p 360-361 (Mentions a house from Hashim, a sword,
some goats and five (5) camels).
- Seerah al Halabiyah vol 1 p 56
- Ansab al Ashraf v 1 p 96
When the first part of the tradition is proved wrong, then how can the
second part that is "What we leave behind is to be given in charity", be
true as well! This very statement also clearly violates the Verses that
are stated in the Holy Quran, that are as follows:
"And Solomon (Sulaymaan) inherited from David." (Quran 27:16)
While both Sulaymaan and David were prophets and very wealthy. they were
kings at their era. Allah , Exalted, also says:
"(Zakariya prayed to Allah by saying) ... Grant me a son from
yourself, who inherits from me and inherit from the children of Jacob,
and make him, O' my Lord, the one with whom you are well- pleased."
These are examples that Prophets left inheritances, and as might you have
seen that they seem to contradict the hadith that was narrated by Abu Bakr.
The traditon mentioned by Abu Bakr is fabricated otherwise it would not
contradict Quran. It would also be very helpful to cite an incident, where
Imam Ali (AS) had quoted the verses of the Quran, the same as the ones
cited above. The incident runs as follows:
It is reported by Jafar that Fatimah came to Abu Bakr to demand her
inheritance. Ibn Abbas also came to demand his inheritance, Ali ibn
Talib also came with him. Abu Bakr said that the Prophet of Allah
(PBUH) had said: "We do not make any heir to inherit our property,
what we leave is charity, and the support that he gave them is now my
Ali said: "Prophet Sulayman was the heir of Prophet Da'ud. Prophet
Zakariya prayed to Allah: `Bestow upon me a son, who is heir to me and
the family of Yaqoub.'"
Abu Bakr said: "The matter of the Prophet's legacy is as it is. By
Allah ! You know it as I do."
Ali said: "And see what the Book of Allah is saying."
- Sunni reference: Tabaqat Ibn Sad, v4, p121-122
This report proves that the descendants of Muhammad did not regard the
tradition, put forward by Abu Bakr in response to Fatima's claim for the
inheritance, as true rather they refuted it through the verses of the Quran
which they say that Allah has made the prophets heirs to one another.
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