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HADITHS - Who is the Master

"Verily, your Master is only Allah and His Apostle and those who believe, those who establish prayers,
and pay the zakat while bowed (in worship)." Quran 5:55

This is "The verse of Mastership", Leadership or Wilaya and both Sunni and Shias scholars acknowledge that it was revealed in honour of Hazrat Ali Ibn-Abi Talib (AS).

References
(1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tha'labi, under Verse 5:55
(2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v6, pp 186,288-289
(3) Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Quran, by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Qurtubi, v6, p219
(4) Tafsir al-Khazin, v2, p68
(5) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v2, pp 293-294
(6) Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, Egypt 1373, v1, pp 505,649
(7) Asbab al-Nuzool, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Egypt 1382, v1, p73 on the authority of Ibn Abbas
(8) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, on the authority of Ibn Abbas
(9) Sharh al-Tjrid, by Allama Qushji
(10) Ahkam al-Quran, al-Jassas, v2, pp 542-543
(11) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p38
(12) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, p391, Tradition #5991
(13) al-Awsat, by Tabarani, narrated from Ammar Yasir
(14) Ibn Mardawayh, on the authority of Ibn Abbas


Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, said:

Both of my ears may turn deaf and both of my eyes may become blind if I speak a lie. I heard the Messenger of Allah, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity, saying, "Ali is the guide of the righteous and the slayer of the infidels. he who has helped him is victorious and he who has abandoned him is forsaken."

One day I said my prayers in the company of the Prophet. A beggar came to the mosque and begged for alms, but nobody gave him anything. Ali was in a state of kneeling in the prayer. He pointed out his ring to the beggar, who appraoched him and removed the ring from his finger. Thereupon the Prophet, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity, implored Allah the Mighty and Glorious, saying: "O Allah! My brother Moses begged you saying, 'My Lord, delight my heart and make my task easy and undo the knot in my tongue so that they may understand me, and appoint from my kinsmen, Haroon, my brother, as my vizier, and strenghthen my back with him and make him participate in my mission so that we may glorify You and remember You more frequently. Certainly You see us.' And You inspired him: 'O Musa! All your requests have been granted.' O Allah! I am your slave and your prophet. Delight my heart and make my task easy and appoint from among my kinsmen Ali as my vizier and strengthen my back with him."

Abu Dhar, then proceeded:

By Allah, the Messenger of Allah, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity had not yet finished his supplication when the trustworthy Gabriel descended to him with this Verse

"Certainly Allah is Your Master, and His Prophet and those who believe who establish prayer and give charity while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe as a guardian, so surely the party of Allah will be victorious."

Sunni reference: Tafsir al-Kabir, by al-Tha'labi under the commentary of verses 5:55-56 of Quran.

Vested Authority

"O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those vested in authority from among you; then if you quarrel about anything, refer it to Allah and the Apostle, if you believe in Alalh and the last day; this is better and very good in the end." Quran 4:59

Who are those vested in authority?

an-Nu'mani has narrated through his chain from Sulaym ibn Qays al-Hilali from 'Ali (a.s.) a tradition of the same meaning as above. Also 'Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated it through his chain from Sulaym from 'Ali (a.s.). There are other traditions narrated through Shi'i and Sunni chains, describing the imamah of the above imams together with their names; which may be seen in Yanabi'u 'l-mawaddah, and al-Bahrani's Ghayatu 'l-maram and other books.

Jabir al-Ju'fi has said: "I asked Abu Ja'far (a.s.) about the verse, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those vested with authority from among you. He said: 'The Imams.' " (at-Tafsir al-Ayyashi)

12 Imams as per the Holy Prophet

1. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "The [Islamic] religion will continue until the Hour (day of resurrection), having twelve Caliphs for you, all of them will be from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih Muslim (Arabic version) Kitab al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, v3, p1453, Tradition #10

Sahih Muslim, (English version)
Chapter DCCLIV (titled: The People are subservient to the Quraysh and the Caliphate is the Right of the Quraysh), v3, p1010, Tradition #4483 Hadith #3398 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

2. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "The affairs of people will continue to be conducted (well) as long as they are governed by the twelve men, all of them from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih Muslim (Arabic version) Kitab al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, v3, p1453, Tradition #6
Sahih Muslim, (English version) Chapter DCCLIV (titled: The People are subservient to the Quraysh and the Caliphate is the Right of the Quraysh), v3, p1010, Tradition #4478 Hadith #3394 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

3. Narrated Jabir ibn Samura: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "This matter (life) will not end, until it is passed by twelve Caliphs." He then whispered a sentence. I asked my father what the Prophet said. He said, the Prophet added: "All of them will be from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih Muslim (Arabic version) Kitab al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, v3, p1452, Tradition #5
Sahih Muslim, (English version) Chapter DCCLIV (titled: The People are subservient to the Quraysh and the Caliphate is the Right of the Quraysh), v3, p1009, Tradition #4477 Hadith #3393 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

4. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs, all of them from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih Muslim (Arabic version) Kitab al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, v3, p1453, Tradition #7
Sahih Muslim, (English version) Chapter DCCLIV (titled: The People are subservient to the Quraysh and the Caliphate is the Right of the Quraysh), v3, p1010, Tradition #4479 Hadith #3395 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

5. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs, all of them from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih Muslim (Arabic version) Kitab al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, v3, p1453, Tradition #8
Sahih Muslim, (English version) Chapter DCCLIV (titled: The People are subservient to the Quraysh and the Caliphate is the Right of the Quraysh), v3, p1010, Tradition #4480 Hadith #3396 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

6. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Islam will continue to be triumphant and protected until there have been twelve Caliphs, all of them from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih Muslim (Arabic version) Kitab al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, v3, p1453, Tradition #9
Sahih Muslim, (English version) Chapter DCCLIV (titled: The People are subservient to the Quraysh and the Caliphate is the Right of the Quraysh), v3, p1010, Tradition #4481 Hadith #3397 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)
7. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "There will be after me twelve Amir (Prince/Ruler), all of them from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic) Chapter of Fitan, 2:45 (India) and 4:501 Tradition # 2225 (Egypt) Hadith #2149 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

8. "This religion remains standing until there are twelve vicegerents over you, all of them agreeable to the nation, all of them from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sunan Abu Dawud (Arabic) 2:421, Kitab al-Mahdi.
Sunan Abu Dawud (Arabic) 3:106, Kitab al-Mahdi. Hadith #3731 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

9. "The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs," So people said Takbir and made noise, then he said a light word I didn't hear. I [Jabir bin Samura] said to my father: What did he say? He said "All of them are from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sunan Abu Dawud (Arabic) 2:421, Kitab al-Mahdi.
Sunan Abu Dawud (Arabic) 3:106, Kitab al-Mahdi. Hadith #3732 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)

10. Narrated Jabir ibn Samura: I heard the Prophet saying, "There will be twelve commanders (Amir)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, the Prophet added, "All of them will be from Quraysh."

SOURCES:

Sahih al-Bukhari (English) Hadith: 9.329, Kitabul Ahkam.
Sahih al-Bukhari (Arabic) 4:165, Kitabul Ahkam. Hadith #6682 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)
OTHER SUNNI SOURCES:

Muslim b. al-Hajjaj, Sahih, 3:1453, Tradition No. 1821, Kitabul Imarah.
Al-Bukhari, Sahih, 4:165, Kitabul Ahkam.
Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Chapter of Fitan, 2:45 (India) and 4:501 Tradition # 2225 (Egypt)
Abu Dawud, Sunan, 3:106, Kitab al-Mahdi.
Al-Tayalisi, Musnad, Tradition No. 767 and 1278.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 5:86.
Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal 13:26-27.
Abu Nu'aym al-Isbahani, Hilyat al-'awliya' , 4:333.
Jabir bin Samurah bin Junada was the nephew of Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas. He died at Kufa. The compilers of traditions have narrated 146 traditions from him. For his biography, refer to Usd al-Ghaba or Taqrib al-Tahdhib.

SOME TRADITIONS:

1. Then the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) spoke a few words which I could not understand. Then I asked my father: "What did the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say?" He said: "All of them are from the Quraysh."

sources:

Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Fath al-Bari 16:338.
Al-Hakim al-Nisaburi, Mustadrak al-Sahihayn 3:167.

2. The Prophet (SAW) said: "The enmity of their enemies will not harm them."

sources:

Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Fath al-Bari 16:338

3. "This nation will always remain straight in its affairs, and triumphant against the enemies, till twelve Caliphs will be among them; all of them from Quraysh. Then there will be discord and confusion." [4]

sources:

Muntakhab Kanz al-'Ummal 5:321.
Ibn Kathir, Ta'rikh, 6:249.
Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa, Vol 10.
Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal ,13:26
Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa Vol 28.

4. "There will be twelve upright Imams for this nation. Those who try to disgrace them will not succeed; all of them shall be from the Quraysh."

sources:

Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal , 13:27

5. "This religion will remain till twelve Imams from Quraysh (will pass), then when they expire the earth will swallow its inhabitants."

sources:

Ibid.

6. "The affair of this nation will always be apparent till the twelve Imams will rise, all of them from the Quraysh."

sources:

Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 1:398 and 406.
Al-Hakim al-Nisaburi, Mustadrak , 4:501
Al-Dhahabi, Talkhis , 4:501.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Fath al-Bari 16:339.
Ali b. Abu Bakr al-Haythami, Majma' al-Zawa'id 5:190.
Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa, vol 12.
Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa, Vol 10.
[Al-Suyuti or al-Tabarani], Jami' al-Saghir 1:75.
Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, 13:27

7. "We were sitting one evening with Abdullah (ibn Mas'ud). We were reciting the Qur'an, then a man asked him: "O Abu Abdur-Rahman, did you ask the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) how many Caliphs will rule this nation?" Abdullah said: "No one asked me about this before you from the time I arrived in Iraq." He said: "We asked him (the Prophet s.a.w.s.), he said: "Twelve, (like) the number of the Chiefs of Bani Israel."

sources:

Ibn Kathir, Ta'rikh, 6:248.
Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, 13:27.
Al-Haskani , Shawahid al-Tanzil, 1:455, Tradition No. 626.

8. Ibn Mas'ud said: "The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: "There will be Caliphs after me, whose number is like those of the companions of Musa."

sources:

Ibn Kathir, Ta'rikh, 6:248

9. Ibn Kathir said: "And there is a similar narration from Abdullah bin 'Umar, Hudhayfah and Ibn 'Abbas

sources:

Imam 'Ali b. Abi Talib [a], Nahjul Balagha, Sermon no. 142

10. The traditions assert that the number of authorities are twelve and all of them are from Quraysh, and, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) clarified it in his speech that they shall be from the Quraysh when he said: "Surely Imams will be from the Quraysh, they have been planted in this line through Hashim. It would not suit others nor would others be suitable as heads of affairs."

And he said: "O Allah! Yes, but the earth is never devoid of those who maintain Allah's plea either openly and reputedly or, being afraid, and hidden in order that Allah's pleas and proofs should not be rebutted."

sources:

Shaykh Sulayman Qanduzi al-Hanafi, Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, p. 523

1. Al-Juwayni reports that Abdullah ibn Abbas remarked that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said, "I am the chief of the Prophets and Ali ibn Abi Talib is the chief of successors, and after me my successors shall be twelve, the first of them being Ali ibn Abi Talib and the last of them being Al Mahdi

sources:

Al-Dhahabi says in Tadhkirat al-Huffaz, vol. 4, p. 298, that Sadruddin Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin al-Hamawayh al-Juwayni al-Shafi'i was a great scholar of Hadith. Also see his biographical note in Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, al-Durar al-kaminah, vol. 1, p. 67.

2. Al-Juwayni has also mentioned another tradition from Ibn 'Abbas (r.a.) that he narrates from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.):

"Certainly my Caliphs and my legatees and the Proofs of Allah upon his creatures after me are twelve. The first of them is my brother and the last of them is my (grand) son." He was asked: "O Messenger of Allah, who is your brother?" He said, "Ali ibn Abi Talib"

Then they asked, "And who is your son?"

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) replied, "Al Mahdi, the one who will fill the earth with justice and equity like it would be brimming with injustice and tyranny. And by the One Who has raised me as a warner and a give of good tidings, even if a day remains for the life of this world, the Almighty Allah will prolong this day to an extent till he sends my son Mahdi, then he will make Ruhullah 'Isa ibn Maryam (a.s.) to descend and pray behind him (Mahdi). And the earth will be illuminated by his radiance. And his power will reach to the east and the west."

Al-Juwayni also narrates from his chain of narrators that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) informed: "I and Ali and Hasan and Husayn and nine of the descendants of Husayn are the purified ones and the infallible."

"O Our Lord! Surely I have settled a part of my offspring in a valley unproductive of fruit near Thy Sacred House, Our Lord! That they keep up prayer; therefore make the hearts of some people yearn towards them and provide them with fruits; haply they may be grateful." (Sura Ibrahim 14 : 37) The holy verse points to the fact that Ibrahim (a.s.) had settled some of his progeny, that is Isma'il (a.s.) in the area of Mecca and he also prayed that the Almighty Allah may bestow them with His Mercy and that they remain the medium of guidance for humanity till the end of time. The Almighty accepted his invocation by appointing Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) from his progeny, and after him his twelve successors as the leaders of humanity for the time to come. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) says: "We are the remnant of progeny. And that was the prayer of Ibrahim (a.s.) regarding us."

ROPE OF ALLAH (12 IMAMS)

"Hold fast to the Rope of Allah, all of you together and do not separate" (Quran 3:103)"

The Rope of Allah which we should not separate from, are the Ahlul-Bayt. In fact, some Sunni scholars narrated from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (AS) saying:

"We are the Rope of Allah about whom Allah has said: 'Hold fast to the Rope of Allah, all of you together and do not diverge (3:103)'"

Sunni references:
al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami , Ch. 11, section 1, p233 Tafsir al-Kabir, by al-Tha'labi, under commentary of verse 3:103

The Twelve Imams from Quraish as per Shias

The Imamat (leadership) continued in the children of Imam Hussain after him.

1st Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib AS - Martyred in the Mosque of Koofa, Najaf in Fajr prayers
2nd Imam, Hassansd ibn Ali AS - Martyred by poison in the holy city of Medina
3rd Imam, Hussain ibn Ali As - Martyred in Karbala, Iraq with family & friends
4th Imam, Sajjad ibn Hussain AS - Martyred by poision in Medina
5th Imam, Baquer AS - Martyred by poison in Medina
6th Imam, Jaffer-e-Sadiq AS - Martyred by poison in Medina, teacher of Abu Hanifa
7th Imam, Moosa Kazim As - Martyred by poison in Medina
8th Imam, Raza AS - Martyred by poison in Mashad, Iran
9th Imam, Taqi AS - Martyred by poison in Kazimain, Iraq
10th Imam, Naqi AS - Martyred by poison in Samara, Iraq
11th Imam, Hassan Askari AS - Martyred by poison in Samarra, Iraq
12th Imam, Mehdi AS - In cultation, will appear on the command of Allah and shall bring justice in this world.

And scholars of Ahlul Sunna quoes in their books like, Tarikh al Khulafa, Kanz al ummal, al Dhahabi and other renowned sunni scholars mentions their 12 caliphs as follows,

1. Hazrat Abubaker
2. Hazrat Umar
3. Hazrat Usman
4. Mua’via bin-Abu Sufiyan
5. Yazid-bin-Mua’via
6. Saffa-bin-Muavia
7. Salam
8. Mansur
9. Jabir
10. al-Mahdi
11. Al Amin
12. Amir al Asab

The Saha Sittah has traditions in which the Holy Prophet (saaws) foretold the coming of twelve khalifa’s after him (1). Who are they? We assert that these are the twelve Imams from the Ahlul’bayt. Mulla Ali Qari whilst setting out the Hanafi interpretation of this hadith lists Yazid ibn Mu’awiya as the sixth Khalifa?(2) Was the Holy Prophet (saaws) really referring to such a man? When we also have a hadith that states ‘He who dies without giving bayah to an Imam dies the death of one belonging to the days of jahiliyya’(3) then it is imperative that we identify and determine who these twelve khalifa’s are. 1. “The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted as long as they are governed by 12 men, he then added from Quraish” (taken from Sahih Muslim, hadith number 4483, English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqui). 2. Sharra Fiqa Akbar, by Mulla Ali Qari, p 175 (publishers Muhummud Saeed and son, Qur’an Muhall, Karachi). 3.Ibid,page.175

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